There are several aspects to disaster risk reduction:
- Disaster mitigation – Structural and non-structural measures undertaken to limit the adverse impact of natural hazards; for example, planting mangroves to reduce the risk posed by tidal surges or raising awareness of natural hazards through school-based education projects.
- Early warning – The provision of timely information enabling people to take steps to reduce the impact of hazards. Early warning is typically multi-hazard and requires genuine ownership of, and participation by, communities and other stakeholders, e.g., access to information by local people concerning an approaching typhoon or tropical storm.
- Disaster preparedness – Measures that help ensure a timely and effective ‘first line’ of response supported by National Societies’ volunteers, branches, regional and national capacities, e.g., community action teams backed up by National Society contingency planning and regional and/or international response teams.
- Recovery – Decisions and actions taken after a disaster with a view to restoring or improving the pre-disaster living conditions of the affected community, while facilitating necessary adjustments to reduce disaster risk, e.g., assessing levels of future risk when planning housing projects in the aftermath of a disaster.
- Support to livelihoods – Projects that strengthen or diversify livelihoods that enable individuals or households to develop strategies to reduce risk, e.g. home gardening can improve nutrition and increase reserves in the time of drought.
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