Hurricane

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Climate crises Q&A: Why have some recent storms gained so much strength, so quickly?

An interview with Juan Bazo, climate scientist with the Red Cross Red Crescent Climate Centre, by Susana Arroyo Barrantes, IFRC Americas Regional Communications ManagerSusana Arroyo:In October 2023, Hurricane Otis caused a lot of astonishment after it went from a tropical storm to a category 5 hurricane in just 12 hours. According to the U.S. National Hurricane Center, it was the most powerful hurricane ever recorded on the Mexican Pacific coast. Did El Niño have something to do with the rapid intensification of Otis?Juan Bazos: It was a combination of warm oceans, along with El Niño. In addition, the entire Pacific coastline of Mexico, El Salvador, Honduras, and the coasts of Costa Rica, have been very warm. This has allowed the formation of cyclones and storms. Some of these storms have even passed from the Atlantic to the Pacific.Regarding the intensification, this has happened before, Hurricane Patricia in 2015, also had this very rapid intensification in less than 12 hours off the Pacific coast of Mexico, but the impact was not in a very populated area.For a scientific point of view, it is increasingly difficult to forecast this type of intensification. Most, if not all, of the models failed in the short-term forecast, which is one of the most reliable forecasts we have in meteorology. This is due to several factors: the rapid intensification, very local atmospheric conditions, and the temperature of the ocean water in this part of the Mexican coast.Increasingly, intensification is not only occurring in the Pacific and Atlantic of our region, but also in the Indian Ocean. In The Philippines, this has happened many times. That is a challenge, both for the climate services and for the humanitarian response.SA: One thing we depend on to make life-saving decisions is rigorous, accurate, effective forecasts. If we are moving towards an era of greater uncertainty, then we must also look at how we anticipate on other fronts. What can we expect for this year?JB: In the following months, we would normally be entering a neutral period and quickly passing to La Niña phenomenon. And this will also bring its consequences, changing the whole panorama. It could be that this year we will have to prepare for a hurricane season that may be higher than normal. So, we must keep monitoring, considering the climate crisis and the Atlantic Ocean that is still very warm.SA: The IFRC has tried to make more alliances with meteorological institutions dedicated to researching, monitoring, and understanding the climate. Is that one of the paths to the future, to strengthen this alliance? JB: Increasingly, the IFRC has scientific technical entities as its main allies, to make reliable decisions, and I think that is the way we must continue to work. Scientific information will bring us information for our programs and operations at different time scales, in the short, medium, and long term.We must not ignore climate projections but plan how we can adapt knowing that the climate is going to change. This is part of our work, from our policies to our interventions and I think the Red Cross and Red Crescent network does this very well. However, we need to empower ourselves more, get closer to the technical scientific entities, the academia, which are our allies. They can bring us much more information — much richer, much more localized. And this is the next step we must take.SA: Many changes are also coming in the field of meteorology. Now, using artificial intelligence (AI) and increasingly large amounts of data, there will be changes and likely improvements in forecasting. Could we therefore get more reliable forecasts in terms of rapid intensification?JB: Artificial Intelligence opens a lot of room for innovation. Meteorology is not 100 per cent accurate. There is always that degree of uncertainty and there are going to be failures. It is part of our planet's atmospheric chaos, of its complexity and the many variables that play a role in weather forecasting. In that sense, AI will be a great added value for the improvement of forecasts.This brings to the table the need for 1) greater investment in forecast-based early action systems, 2) early warning systems that are more agile, flexible, and capable of informing and mobilizing the population in record time, and 3) humanitarian aid that is pre-positioned to respond to disasters as they occur.

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Three months after catastrophic floods, Libyan Red Crescent works on to support survivors

Storm Daniel hit north-eastern Libya on Sunday 10 September, bringing strong winds and sudden heavy rainfall, which led to massive flooding, devastation and deaths. Infrastructure was severely damaged, including dams near Derna that burst, causing flooding that swept away entire neighbourhoods. Libyan Red Crescent teams and volunteers were first on the ground, evacuating people and providing first aid and search and rescue. The IFRC quickly allocated resources through its Disaster Response Emergency Fund.The IFRC then launched an emergency appeal to support the Libyan Red Crescent in providing emergency shelter, psychosocial support, healthcare, clean water and food to affected communities. Teams also worked tirelessly to help people reconnect with family members. With the IFRC network backing it up, Libyan Red Crescent workers performed heroic work. But there’s more to be done. The IFRC emergency appeals sought to raise CHF 25 million (CHF 20 million of which is expected to be raised by the IFRC Secretaria) to support the Libyan Red Crescent. So far, just more than CHF 8.3 million has been raised. And the needs continue as many are still displaced from their homes and the psychological and economic shock lingers. The disaster also garnered support from around the IFRC network. To support the response of the Libyan Red Crescent in the aftermath of the devastating floods, the Turkish Red Crescent dispatched cargo planes from Türkiye, carrying search and rescue, emergency medical teams and relief teams along with equipment and humanitarian supplies. What happened in Derna should be a ‘wake up call for the world’ on the increasing risk of catastrophic floods in a world changed by climate change, according to the IFRC. A rapid analysis by the World Weather Attribution group — a group of scientists supported by the IFRC — analyzed climate data and computer model simulations to compare the climate as it is today, after about 1.2°C of global warming, with the climate of the past. The scientists found that human caused climate change has made heavy rainfall in north-eastern Libya up to 50 times more likely to occur than it would have been in a world not experiencing human-caused climate change. They also found there was up to 50 percent more intense rain than there would have been in a comparable rainstorm in a pre-climate change world.  Something as ordinary as rainy days and nearby seashores have sadly become a source of fear for those living in eastern Libya, especially for those who experienced first-hand the massive floods that swept-away homes, cars, and loved ones in the blink of an eye. Signs of experienced trauma, such as children screaming during their sleep or sleepwalking, have become a nightly occurrence in Derna, and even in the nearby city of Benghazi, where most of families fled to following the devastation.   “People are associating rain with death," said Ali Gharor, mental health and psychosocial support officer at the Libyan Red Crescent Society, which has provided a wide range of continuing mental health and psychosocial support to survivors of the flood. “All groups of people in the city need psychological support, including volunteers.”

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| Press release

Cyclone Lola leaves trail of destruction in Northern Vanuatu, warning for cyclone season

Port Vila/Kuala Lumpur/Geneva,26October 2023– Thousands of people have been greatly affectedby the recent Category 5 Cyclone Lola in Vanuatu.Making landfall on 25 October2023, the cyclone hasleft a path of destruction with damage to houses,schools, infrastructure, plantations,and roads – making some of the mostaffected communitiescurrently inaccessible to outside assistance. The devastationleft by the cyclone is immense,especially in the northern provinces of the country. Connectivity to theseprovinces–where the cyclone’s most destructive winds were felt at Category 5-remains down. Lola- thethird cyclone for the country in seven months, has meant that communities only just beginning to recover from the twin cyclones, Judyand Kevin, are now reeling in the wake of theircompounded impact. Vanuatu Red Cross Society Secretary General, Dickinson Tevi, said: "From the information we have gathered, we believe some communities have suffered moredamagethan from Cyclone Harold in 2020, which was also a Category 5. The only difference is that Lola was very slow-moving - which meant more destructionin some places. Our Red Cross volunteers are part of these communities and are already in action.An initialrapid assessment in Torba, for example, came within hours of the cyclone passing yesterday.We are ready to be mobilized into othercommunitiesonce we cangain access. Our priority right now is to reach the worst affected areas with immediate reliefitems. Some of the reports coming back highlight the immediate need for temporary shelter. Some families have lost everything." Vanuatu Red Cross Society is ready to distribute immediate pre-positioned relief items such as tarpaulins for shelter, hygiene kits for washing and cleaning, solar lanterns, mosquito nets and cooking items. Head of the IFRC Pacific Office, Katie Greenwood, said: "IFRC, together with Vanuatu Red Cross, has all hands-on deck, ready to mobilize support to Vanuatu Red Crossin whatever way is required. It is great to see, as bad as the damage appears to be, that preparedness and early warnings once again saved lives.Our local Red Cross teamsare acting asswiftly as possible, through a coordinated approach with authorities, to reach the most affected people. One of our greatest concerns,however, is that Cyclone Lola, an out-of-season Category 5 nightmare for the communities of Northern Vanuatu – has just sent an 'Early Warning' shot for this cyclone season to the country and its neighbours in the Blue Pacific. This season will likely have an above-average number of severe tropical cyclones (between 5 to 7) dueto the heightened ferocity that can come with a forecasted 'strong' El Nino event. We are all on notice to prepare for what may lie ahead." For more information: To request an interview, contact:[email protected] In Port Vila: Soneel Ram:+679 9983 688 In Kuala Lumpur: AfrhillRances: +60 192 713 641 In Geneva: Mrinalini Santhanam: +41 76 381 50 06 Tommaso Della Longa: +41 79 708 43 67

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| Press release

IFRC urges governments and humanitarian partners to protect lives ahead of an active hurricane season in the Americas

Panama/Geneva, 31 May 2022 —The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) is ramping up preparedness actions ahead of another above-average active Hurricane Season in the Atlantic Ocean. The IFRC urges governments and humanitarian stakeholders to protect lives by investing in early warning systems, forecast-based solutions, and coordinated disaster response plans. From 1 June to 30 November 2022, North America, Central America, and the Caribbean expect between 14 to 21 named storms, of which six to 10 could become hurricanes, including three to six hurricanes of category three or higher. The IFRC and its network are working to ensure communities are better prepared to cope with the effects of heavy rains, landslides, and floods that these weather events may cause during the next six months. Martha Keays, IFRC Regional Director for the Americas, said: “The region may face up to six major hurricanes, but it takes just one single storm to destroy communities that are already grappling with poverty, inequality, and the devastating effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, hundreds of local Red Cross teams in more than 20 countries are sharing early warning messages and coordinating preparedness measures with local governments and community leaders. In parallel, the IFRC is combining weather forecasts with risk analysis to take early actions ahead of hurricanes rather than simply responding to events. This approach allows us to anticipate disasters, decrease their impact as much as possible, and prevent suffering and the loss of lives and livelihoods.” The IFRC is paying special attention to the needs of women, children, migrants, and returnees, who are suffering from overlapping crises in Central America. This region is still recovering from the pandemic and hurricanes Eta and Iota, which left 1.5 million people displaced in Nicaragua, Honduras, and Guatemala alone. In Colombia, Honduras, Guatemala and Haiti, vulnerable communities exposed to hurricanes and storms are also at highest risk of food insecurity due to the current global food shortage crisis. In this challenging scenario, the IFRC is advocating for regulatory frameworks that favor the agile delivery of humanitarian aid to areas affected by disasters. It has also prepositioned humanitarian goods in Panama, Guatemala, Honduras and across the Caribbean to provide immediate response to the humanitarian needs for up to 60,000 people in both the Pacific and Atlantic coastal zones. According to the Red Cross Red Crescent Climate Center, the 2022 hurricane season in the Atlantic, and the Caribbean Sea is predicted to be more active than normal due to the influence of the La Niña climate pattern. This phenomenon is active for the third consecutive year and causes sea temperatures in this basin to be above average. This condition allows for more active development of hurricanes, as seen in 2020 and 2021. For more information, please contact: In Panama Susana Arroyo Barrantes - Comms Manager Americas,[email protected] María Victoria Langman - Senior Comms Officer Americas,[email protected] In Jamaica Trevesa Da Silva - Comms Officer English & Dutch Caribbean, [email protected]

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Cyclones

Tropical cyclones are rapidly-rotating storm systems that rotate (counter-clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere) around a low pressure centre. They are generally slow moving but severe, with winds of between 120-320 kilometres an hour. They have different names depending on where they happen:cyclonesin Southeast Asian waters and the Indian Ocean, typhoonsin East Asian and Pacific waters and hurricanesin the Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico or Caribbean sea. Most cyclone-related deaths are from flooding, but also from electrocution, collapsed structures and blowing debris.

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A more effective response is possible

By Olivia Acosta Last November powerful Hurricane Eta, the second strongest hurricane for the 2020 Atlantic Hurricane Season, caused last November in Panama landslides, flooding and strong winds, forcing thousands of people to leave their homes. The Panamanian Red Cross deployed an emergency operation to respond in different isolated communities in the western part of the country, through search and rescue activities; distribution of food, blankets and shelter; access to hygiene and drinking water; psychosocial support and reestablishment of family contacts, among others. According to Nadia de la Cadena, PER (Preparedness for Effective Response) focal point of the Panamanian Red Cross, one of the main obstacles they faced was the distribution of aid, in a disaster context aggravated by the Covid-19 pandemic, which hindered the response due to mobility problems and limited product procurement. The Panamanian Red Cross teams realized that it was necessary to strengthen local logistical capacity in order to provide a better response to the affected communities. "Providing an effective response in this emergency, in which we also had to deal with the Covid-19 pandemic, was very complex. We found that, if we didn't have sufficient capacity to distribute, a coordination alliance could be established with other actors to be able to do so". And they were able to realize this, because for the first time they implemented the Preparedness Approach for Effective Response, through the Readiness Check, which allowed them to evaluate and improve their response mechanism of the components that had already been identified in previous assessments last year. The interesting thing about this experience, according to Nadia, is that by detecting weaknesses they were able to adjust and improve their response during the emergency itself, to help more people."We conducted a preparedness check and deleted that we had weaknesses in logistics, communication, and coordination with authorities and other actors on the ground. Immediate solutions were sought and the response was undoubtedly more effective, appropriate to the real needs of those affected." One of the keys to the response was the coordination with different actors in the field. The Panamanian Red Cross, after assessing needs and adjusting the response (communication, participation in the national operations center, improvement of equipment, etc.), received national and international support to provide additional aid for the affected communities. "We met with authorities, mayors and governors, which made things much easier because they provided us storage space and guards. And they did this because they were very aware of the work we were doing to support the population in the affected communities." Krystell Santamaria, IFRC Senior Preparedness Officer for Covid-19 and Panamanian Red Cross volunteer, was supporting the identification and improvement of the response. "The improvement in the response in this emergency has been evident, the affected people have also perceived it. A lady from one of the most affected communities, in Corotú Civil area, confirmed to us that during these floods far fewer people had fallen ill than in other similar situations. She was very clear that it was due to the distribution of drinking water, chlorination and cleaning of wells that we carried out”. She said. “The people in the communities we have supported were very grateful and thanked the volunteers by sharing their oranges and bananas with them”. In addition, according to Nadia, the presence of volunteering at the local level is an added value, because it has been possible to support indigenous communities by volunteers who spoked their same language. "I want to emphasize the total support of the president of the Panamanian Red Cross and the Governing Board to all processes and to the hundreds of volunteers who made this response possible. Volunteers certainly deserve great recognition." The improved emergency response also contributed to increased visibility of the activities of the Panamanian Red Cross, which meant more media impact and greater support from national and foreign donors. An example of this was the donations from the French government for the purchase of vehicles and from other local companies for the transportation and delivery of aid, drinking water and non-perishable foodstuffs, among others. In 2019 the Panamanian Red Cross started working on the implementation of the PER approach through facilitators' workshops and awareness conferences. "This approach is the result of experience and best practices learned over many years responding to emergencies around the world. It is clear that investing in disaster preparedness in National Societies saves more lives and economic and social recovery is much faster." In the case of the Panamanian Red Cross, through this approach they have identified the need, among others, to develop a procurement manual to secure supplies during an emergency, and a safe space is being set up to store aid and response equipment. The Panamanian Red Cross is currently reinforcing fundraising to review and strengthen its response plan and capacity, and the development of the National Society's strategic plan, which will include all areas of improvement identified during the emergency, such as the establishment of processes and the search for new collaborators.

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| Press release

IFRC braces for hurricane season in midst of COVID-19 pandemic

Panama/Geneva, 31 May 2020 —The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) is currently mobilizing and ramping up the efforts of hundreds of Red Cross teams across the Americas to prepare for another hurricane season during the COVID-19 pandemic. Experts predict 13 to 20 named storms forming in the Atlantic Ocean only, six to 10 of those developing into hurricanes, and three to five possibly becoming major hurricanes of Category 3 or higher. These storms could bring further devastation to a region that is still heavily affected by last year’s storms and hurricanes and the COVID-19 pandemic. During the next six months, deadly rains, landslides and floods could further affect communities already grappling with the pandemic, where vaccines are not yet widely available, and where livelihoods have been destroyed. Jagan Chapagain, IFRC Secretary General, said: “In Central America and Colombia, thousands of families are still recovering from damage caused by hurricanes Eta and Iota, which affected more than 7.5 million people just six months ago. Recovery has been hindered by the pandemic, which has wiped people’s economic resources, strained health systems and caused challenges to the response. “The pandemic adds another layer of complexity. We are now, once again, facing an extremely challenging scenario, with overlapping crises increasing the vulnerabilities of women, children, migrants and other groups. We are supporting regional efforts to prepare for this hurricane season, including strengthening an equitable response to the COVID-19 pandemic, ensuring that no one is left behind.” To mitigate the logistical challenges caused by COVID-19 restrictions, the IFRC has prepositioned humanitarian goods in Panama, Guatemala, Honduras and across the Caribbean to provide immediate response to the humanitarian needs of up to 60,00 people. In parallel, Red Cross teams share early warning messages and urge people to have food, water and other basic necessities at hand, as during the pandemic it might take longer for help to arrive. The IFRC is paying particular attention to the English and Dutch-speaking Caribbean, where several countries have been affected by La Soufrière’s volcanic eruption and where COVID-19 cases and deaths are currently reaching a record high and the socio-economic impact of the pandemic is particularly severe. Roger Alonso, IFRC Head of Disasters, Crises and Climate Unit, said: “These weather events arecyclical andbecoming more frequent and intense.In many cases, we can predict them,so weurgegovernment and donors across the regionto invest inearly warning systems,disaster preparednessefforts and climate change adaptation initiatives that engage vulnerablecommunities and put them at the heart of thehumanitarianresponse. The Red Cross experience shows that being better prepared before a disaster hits can save lives”.

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A new start for over 600 people affected by Cyclone Eloise in Mozambique

Nhamatanda, 20 February 2021—Survivors of Cyclone Eloise have received materials from Mozambique Red Cross Society (CVM) to construct houses and start a new life. “I would like to thank the Red Cross for giving me and my neighbours these materials. We were suffering at the camp; there wasn’t enough space. With this donation, we will be able to construct our house and live a normal life again,” said Amelia Lewanhe, one of the families that received shelter materials. Over 300,000 people have been affected by Eloise that made landfall on 23 January. Thousands were forced from their homes and have been living in temporary accommodation shelters. More than 117,000 hectares of crops were destroyed by torrential downpours and floods. The most affected districts are Nhamatanda, Buzi, Beira and Dondo. Mozambique is prone to cyclones and tropical storms which can lead to flash flooding, hundreds of deaths, and massive destruction of property and crops. Eloise struck areas that have been devastated by previous cyclones, including Cyclone Idai. In addition, this is the third time for Mozambique to be hit by a storm this season: Tropical Storm Chalane hit the country in December 2020 and in February 2021 by Cyclone Gaumbe. Speaking on Saturday during the ceremony of handing over shelter materials to 122 families, Mr. Giro Jose Custodio—the Provincial Secretary of Sofala Mozambique Red Cross Society (CVM)—said that CVM is committed to supporting the people affected by Eloise to start a new life. “We are aware of their problems from the evacuation period to this time. We are mobilizing resources to assist the remaining people in other accommodation centers. Our aim is to get all the affected people out of the accommodation centres,” said Custodio. CVM, with financial and technical support from the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) distributed shelter tool kits, kitchen sets, blankets, sleeping mats, bamboo poles, tarpaulins, ropes, and face masks for COVID-19 prevention, among others. With this distribution, the John Segredo accommodation centre has seen over 610 people moving out of the centre creating space for the remaining communities. The Red Cross has been at the forefront of the response including through anticipation and early action that saved lives. Ahead of the landfall, Mozambique Red Cross Society (CVM) staff and volunteers shared early warning messages to communities in the path of the cyclone to minimize the impact. As a result, many families were moved to safer areas, where they are receiving support from our teams. On January 23, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) released 359,689 Swiss francs from the Disaster Relief Emergency Fund (DREF)—to help Mozambique Red Cross Society (CVM) provide immediate relief and lifesaving assistance to 1,000 cyclone-affected families for three months with regards to health and care services as well as water, sanitation, and hygiene. The road to recovery is long and the IFRC is appealing for 5.1 million Swiss francs to support the (Mozambique Red Cross Society (CVM) to continue to deliver assistance and support early recovery of 100,000 people affected by Cyclone Eloise for 12 months. The appeal focuses on shelter and essential household items (EHI), livelihoods and basic needs, health, water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), protection, gender and inclusion (PGI) and disaster risk reduction (DRR).

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Being prepared: Responding to two powerful hurricanes in the midst of a pandemic

The past hurricane season in the Atlantic has been one of the worst for Honduras since Hurricane Mitch, which caused more than 5,000 deaths in 1998. Hurricanes Eta and Iota, category 4 and 5 respectively, made landfall last November and entered through the Department of Paraíso, the area where Carlos Colindres, National Risk Manager of the Honduran Red Cross, usually lives. "When I confirmed that the situation could become very serious, I began to worry about my family. We were already designing contingency plans for the population, when I remembered that I had to talk to my father to warn him. I explained to him there were going to be days of heavy rain and strong winds and it was necessary to be prepared, to have provisions and to keep warm... he answered me that he had already lived similar situations throughout his life, but now he felt calmer because according to him, they were handled in a more efficient way. That's what it's all about, I told him, be prepared for giving the best response, and try to minimize the impact and save lives”. Responding during a pandemic Colindres, manager since 2014, says the COVID-19 pandemic has hindered the response of the institutions to the disaster caused by the two hurricanes, due to mobility problems and limited product procurement, among others. "The Honduran Red Cross has a lot of experience in facing endemic epidemiological situations in the area, such as dengue or zika, and we are prepared to act in adverse meteorological situations such as hurricanes or floods, but not with a pandemic of such magnitude at the same time... a country is never prepared for a situation like this." There were challenges to being able to provide quality care in a timely manner, according to Colindres. Many things failed, such as early warning systems, because there is no adequate technology available in the country to make an accurate projection and forecast. "Despite everything, our response was adequate, we arrived at the right time. The volunteers of the Honduran Red Cross, together with the national security forces under the Humanitarian Response Units UHR, were evacuating people and transferring the population to shelters and other safe places from the beginning. The Red Cross saved the lives of more than 4,900 people through water and air rescues. They also provided psychosocial support, first aid, and house cleaning... but the second hurricane, Iota, made everything worse, leaving 1.2 million people exposed to the disaster," he recalls. Being prepared Being able to respond in the most effective way to a catastrophe like this it takes many years of hard work and training beforehand. It is essential to be prepared at all levels, from institutional to local level. The key is to have adequate training and resources, as well as ongoing volunteer training. "Having a clear national response plan, which is part of strengthening our operational capacity, has helped us to plan our response. In addition, volunteers have been trained to deal with emergencies, including epidemics. Many National Societies, with the support of the IFRC, are implementing an approach we call PER (Preparedness for Effective Response) that allows us to improve our disaster response mechanism. This approach is the result of experience and best practices learned from many years responding to emergencies around the world". The passage of hurricanes Eta and Iota triggered a humanitarian crisis aggravated by the COVID-19 pandemic, which has left more than 100 dead in Honduras, millions displaced, as well as the destruction of homes, bridges, roads, crops and economic losses in the millions, which will take years to recover.

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No more excuses! The next disaster is coming, what are you doing about it?

By Robert Kaufman, Head of Philippines Country Office, International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. Imagine getting hit by six typhoons during a deadly pandemic. For millions of people in the Philippines, this is their reality as 2020 comes crashing to a close. Predictions of the increasing severity and frequency of emergencies have come true. It’s heart-breaking, exhausting, and scary. But most of all it’s frustrating as much of this human and economic toll can be prevented. We have known about the brutal effects of climate change for a long time, yet we haven’t been doing enough to fix it. Debates about the effects of climate change or whether partners should support more preparedness are failing people. If your roof blows off three times in one month and this extreme weather happens with relentless certainty, there’s nothing to debate. It is time to prepare more for what’s coming. We know that the Philippines is one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world, topping the charts with the most disasters of all countries the past two years. It’s number two for the past decade just behind China. We know the number of climate-related disasters has risen almost 35% since the 1990s. The stuff of Hollywood movies has become a reality for tens of millions of people around the world, as they face bigger, more violent storms and more disease outbreaks. For decades we anticipated another pandemic. Hollywood blockbusters told horror stories of contagious diseases. Since 2008, we’ve seen fantasy become reality with several pandemics, the H1N1 flu virus, SARS and now COVID-19. Yet somehow, the world has been taken by surprise. Let’s make no mistake, we have made inroads. Governments, humanitarian agencies and countless communities deserve credit for helping to save lives. Just seven years ago, the most destructive typhoon to hit the Philippines on record, Haiyan, killed close to 7,000 people. When Typhoon Goni hit in 2020, a storm as strong as Haiyan, less than 70 lives were lost. Still, I’m frustrated. Early on in management, I learned that when you spend significant time and money on something, it is a priority. Most of the time and money in the aid sector is still spent on response, as if we don’t know what’s coming; neither the humanitarian community, the policymakers, nor the big donors. Why are we not using our extraordinary capacity to anticipate crises to prioritize our time and money? What price do we need to place on the lives of people who have died or had their livelihoods ripped apart by disease and disaster before we change our priorities? Today, we largely know the types of risks we are going to face, where they are going to hit and even in many cases, when. Many of the answers are clear as day.Typhoons strike the Philippines every November and December. Floods always follow drought in East Africa. We know the risks and we know what to do about it. The latest study on the value of preparedness confirms what we already knew. Every dollar invested in reducing risks from climate-related disasters saves us $6 when we are fixing up the mess, according to the United States Institute of Building Sciences and the United Nations. Super Typhoon Goni packed the most powerful winds of any storm in the world last year. Together with typhoon Vamco and other major storms, they came at a huge cost, seriously affecting the lives of more than 8.1 million people. More than 425,000 homes have been damaged or destroyed. Among the millions whose livelihoods were disrupted, at least 200,000 farmers and fishermen lost their only source of income. The cost of agricultural damages totalled more than ₱12.3 billion (US260m) according to the Philippines Department of Agriculture. Together, the storms were considered the secondmost expensive typhoons on record, costing more than $US 1 billion. Money normally reserved for responding after disasters strike needs to be made available earlier and for longer-term solutions. We need to stop soil erosion, plant trees and improve drainage. We need to avoid crop wastage with better grain storage and irrigation. We need to build safer houses with stronger and more permanent foundations. We need to protect land rights and strengthen economic development and social protection programs so that people are not dependent on aid when disaster strikes. There needs to be a public accounting of how well resource allocation aligns with scientific prediction and the lessons we have learned. We must put our money where our mouth is. Failing is a dereliction of our responsibility to those most at risk and to ourselves. This past year, millions have faced often insurmountable hardships and heartache. We have a duty to protect the hope and dignity of those we pledge to support by ensuring everyone has a fair chance of a decent life. There just can’t be any more excuses.

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| Press release

Devastation feared as Eloise approaches Mozambique

Maputo/Nairobi/Geneva, 22 January 2021 — With Tropical Storm Eloise expected to make landfall in Central Mozambique early tomorrow (23 January), the Red Cross is warning of the potential for major damage and displacement. Tropical Storm Eloise is predicted to make landfall in Sofala Province, about 20km north of the city of Beira that bore the brunt of Cyclone Idai in March 2019. The Red Cross has activated teams of volunteers to support evacuation and preparation efforts. Gorkhmaz Huseynov, IFRC’s head of country office in Mozambique, said: “We are worried about the safety of over 1 million people in high-risk areas. Mozambique Red Cross teams are on high alert and have already prepositioned emergency relief items in the landfall area. They are already providing water, sanitation, hygiene and health services to families in temporary accommodation centres.” Tropical Storm Eloise is predicted to turn into a category one cyclone with winds between 110km per hour and 185km per hour. Heavy rains will be felt on the coast of Zambezia, Sofala and Inhambane provinces from this evening (22 of January). The cyclone is forecast to cross central Mozambique with considerable strength and potential for widespread floods. It is expected to decrease in intensity as it crosses southern Zimbabwe and South Africa. IFRC’s Huseynov said: “Ahead of the landfall, Mozambique Red Cross staff and volunteers—in collaboration with partners—have shared early warning messages to communities in the path of the cyclone in order to minimise the impact of the cyclone. As a result, many families moved to safer areas, where they are receiving support from our teams.” Mozambique is prone to cyclones and tropical storms which can lead to flash flooding, hundreds of deaths, and massive destruction of property and crops. Eloise is expected to strike areas that have been devastated by previous cyclones, including Cyclone Idai.

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Picking up the Pieces – Belize one month after Eta

Belize, 21 December 2020: More than one month after flooding from Hurricane Eta affected Belize, the impact could still be seen in some parts of the Central American country. In some flooded communities, water levels were still relatively high. In other communities, even though the water level receded, the water marks on houses and furniture and other items placed out in the sun to dry, were a tell-tale sign of the damages that were wreaked by the rainfall and flooding, first by Eta, then by Iota a couple weeks later. “I’ve never seen this before,” Larry Jimenez shared as he sat on a stool right outside his home, which was perched on the banks of the Mopan River. “I’ve lived here in Bullet Tree Falls around seven years and this is the worst I’ve seen it [the flooding]." Larry and his family had to evacuate their home when the river behind his house started rising due to heavy and consistent rainfall from Hurricane Eta. They returned days later to everything in their home completely damaged by water, which had covered up to 9 feet of his house. They managed to save a few items including clothes and some important documents before they evacuated, but everything else was water-logged. Now back home, they are trying to pick up the pieces and still salvage what they can. As Larry relayed the ordeal, his children and niece and nephew sat nearby playing on the remains of a couch outside, which had been damaged by the flooding. Over in Maskall Village in Belize district, Teresita Madrill explained that the water had risen over her knees and while she has seen her community flooded before, this is the first time in years that she has seen it like this. “It has definitely gotten worse. We had to move out and stay with family members elsewhere until the water went back down,” she stated. She said when they returned, they could hardly go in the house. Since then, while she has managed to clean up most of the house, some items were damaged. Her husband and son are a wooden sculptor and carpenter respectively and the wood they used were also drenched and had to be tied to trees in the yard, so they did not float away. Since the water receded, the wood pieces have been laid out in the sun to dry so they could still be used. For Joel Sutherland and his family in Scotland Halfmoon in Belize district, the experience was unexpected. “It was a very frightening situation for us, the water just continued rising and when we got up in the morning, the entire yard was flooded,” he shared as he pointed to the water which had settled in his yard. “I have three canoes because I am a fisherman, so I use them for fishing, but they came in very handy with the floods, as I used them to take my family from the house, across the water to the road,” he added. The Belize Red Cross has been responding by assisting with damage assessments and distributing well needed items such as food packages, cleaning kits, blankets, tarpaulins, hygiene kits, jerry cans (water containers) and COVID-19 kits in several of the affected communities. Lily Bowman, Director General of the Belize Red Cross, stated that these same communities have also been feeling the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. “Belizeans have been experiencing challenges even before the hurricanes with COVID-19 and the Belize Red Cross had been helping families by distributing food packages, especially to those who lost their income as a result of the pandemic,” she noted. Now, the response must be merged. “With the flooding, we find that we have to be doing a dual response – attending to the needs of those impacted by the flooding while also carrying out our COVID-19 response activities, all while trying to ensure the health and safety of our staff, volunteers and beneficiaries,” she explained. Additionally, through a partnership with UNICEF Belize, US Embassy Belize and the National Emergency Management Organization (NEMO), the Belize Red Cross recently assisted in distributing food and hygiene packages to communities in Cayo district which were also impacted by the flooding. Larry’s family was one of those who received packages. “I really appreciate the help from Red Cross and partners, it’s helping us a lot because right now things are hard,” shared Larry, who usually does maintenance at a resort, but with COVID-19 and now the floods, he has not had much work. When asked what is next for him and his family, in a true spirit of resilience, Larry replied, “we can’t just leave ourselves and do nothing, we have to keep going, we have to go forward.” The Belize Red Cross, which is a member of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC), will continue providing relief and recovery assistance, with IFRC’s support, to over 1000 families (approximately 5000 persons), to help them pick up the pieces and recover from Eta. The IFRC is the world’s largest humanitarian network, comprising 192 National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, working to save lives and promote dignity around the world. For more information or to arrange media interviews, please contact: In Belize:Lily Bowman, Belize Red Cross Director General - mailto:[email protected] | +1 501 627 8801 In Jamaica:Trevesa DaSilva, IFRC Communications Officer - [email protected] | +1 876 818 8575 In Panama: Susana Arroyo Barrantes, IFRC Regional Communications Manager - [email protected] | + 506 8416 1771

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Volunteering in the midst of adversity: Red Cross volunteers affected by Eta & Iota help others cope

Belize, 21 December 2020: It is said that ‘in times of adversity and change, we really discover who we are and what we are made of’ and this was evident in the aftermath of Hurricanes Eta and Iota in Belize, where Red Cross volunteers impacted by the floods, were on the frontline helping others who were also affected. Jenine Kerr from Burrell Boom Village in Belize District stayed in the shelter in her community after her house was flooded. After receiving training from the Belize Red Cross approximately two years ago under the Community Disaster Response Team (CDRT) training programme, Jenine forms part of a cadre of volunteers equipped to help in times of disasters. However, in this instance, the disaster literally hit home. “I was home when [the floods from] Hurricane Eta started affecting Belize. We got a lot of rain and the river kept rising and eventually my house got flooded out and [I had to go to] the shelter,” shared Jenine. However, being displaced did not stop her from executing her duties: “I have been helping out in the kitchen. We sanitize on a regular basis; because of COVID-19 we have to keep the place clean, especially because we have a lot of children around,” shared the mother of 5-year-old twins, Jordan and Jordany. Kimberly Seguro, also from Burrell Boom Village, is the President of the CDRT in her community and was also impacted by Eta, two years after her family was subjected to another catastrophe. “I was affected by a fire two years ago and I was able to rebuild … and now the flood came and destroyed the flooring [of the house]” she noted. However, despite the calamities she experienced, Kimberly is grateful for the training from the Belize Red Cross. “During the fire, I knew what to do and because I knew what to do, lives were saved. Our home was not saved but lives were saved,” she highlighted. Kimberly added that the CDRT training also came in useful after Hurricane Eta: “Here at the shelter, we know how to take care of ourselves and take care of the entire village. We assess the other families and ensure that they get assistance from the Belize Red Cross to meet their needs.” Herlet Bull lives with her husband in Lemonal Village in Belize District and not only was her home impacted by the floods but her husband, who is a farmer, lost all his crops. They retreated to a shelter close to their community, where Herlet helps with cleaning, cooking and anything else she can. When asked how she has managed to still help others even in her time of adversity, Herlet explained: “Although I lost everything, as a volunteer with the Belize Red Cross, I would still like to help people because they were affected too. We help each other; they help me cope with it and I help them cope with it.” The Belize Red Cross continues to assist families impacted by the hurricanes and has received support from the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) to further help improve the lives of over 5000 people over the next four months. With the help of its volunteers, the Belize Red Cross will continue distributions of food and hygiene kits, promotion of disease prevention measures, as well as roll out a cash and voucher assistance programme for the most vulnerable. For more information or to arrange media interviews, please contact: In Belize:Lily Bowman, Belize Red Cross Director General - mailto:[email protected] | +1 501 627 8801 In Jamaica:Trevesa DaSilva, IFRC Communications Officer - [email protected] | +1 876 818 8575 In Panama: Susana Arroyo Barrantes, IFRC Regional Communications Manager - [email protected] | + 506 8416 1771

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Extensive destruction reported as Cyclone Yasa slams into Fiji

Suva/Kuala Lumpur, 18 December 2020 – Cyclone Yasa has slammed into Fiji, with initial reports showing extensive destruction across the island nation with tens of thousands of people affected. Packing wind gusts of up to 345 kilometres per hour, the Category 5 storm is one of the strongest to ever hit any country in the Pacific. Fiji Red Cross Society Director-General Ilisapeci Rokotunidau said: “We are very concerned for the safety of thousands of people who have experienced the brunt of this monster storm. Initial reports from volunteers are revealing destruction in Bua, a province on the island of Vanua Levu. The coastal areas of many islands have been impacted by storm surges and flooding at the height of the storm. “Our teams report that houses and community buildings have been destroyed and crops flattened. There are widespread power outages in affected areas. “Trained Red Cross volunteers who live in these same communities are responding to provide first aid and relief and updating the National Office Emergency Centre on needs.”  Fiji Red Cross teams were mobilised as the storm formed, supporting evacuation efforts, securing buildings, and ensuring pre-positioned relief supplies were ready for distribution.  Red Cross volunteers are currently deployed to provide first aid and relief such as tarpaulins for shelter, hygiene kits, safe water, backed by pre-positioned emergency supplies.  Fiji Red Cross teams are working with the National Disaster Management Office and other agencies to work towards meeting immediate needs as quickly and effectively as possible.   To support these relief efforts, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) has released initial early emergency relief funds of 86,000 Swiss Francs ($97,000 USD), to provide urgent assistance including first aid, tarpaulins and shelter materials, safe water, household items and hygiene kits for 17,700 people over the next month. Head of the IFRC Pacific Office, Kathryn Clarkson, said: "It's devastating to see another big cyclone affect Fiji so soon after Cyclone Harold and so close to Christmas. With communities that are already facing challenges because of COVID-19 this will only add to the hardships. We have a full team of people supporting the Fiji Red Cross Society operations and will be looking to increase our financial support once we get the full picture of the damages.” 

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Pacific nations brace for first major cyclones of the season

Suva, 16 December 2020 – Two tropical cyclones have formed in the Pacific, signaling the beginning of what is forecast to be a busy season for emergency responders across the region. Tropical Cyclone Yasa has been building strength between Fiji and Vanuatu and is tracking towards Fiji as a severe category 5 storm. Communities in Tonga have also been on high alert for Tropical Cyclone Zazu, which passed over the country bringing strong winds and heavy rain. The sudden simultaneous storms reinforce predictions that tropical cyclones will be more frequent and there is more risk of floods this season due to the changing climate and La Niña weather conditions. Red Cross societies across the Pacific prepare for the cyclone season all year, pre-positioning relief supplies, training volunteers and staff in everything from first aid to relief goods, and ensuring that communities know what to do when cyclones strike. This year these efforts have incorporated COVID-19 prevention. Vanuatu Red Cross Society Secretary General Jacqueline de Gaillande said: "We already have experience managing multiple disasters, following Tropical Cyclone Harold earlier this year, while dealing with the risks the COVID-19 pandemic posed to our communities. Our emergency response teams have all been trained on COVID-19 procedures and are ready to respond as needed.” The Fiji Red Cross Society Director-General Ilisapeci Rokotunidau reiterates the importance of getting ready early. “Disasters can strike at any time and we know that knowledge and preparation are critical for communities as they prepare for disasters. Our volunteers are, and will be, at the core of helping their communities to be ready and provide relief during this cyclone season.” The 12 Pacific countries have an extensive network of more than 5,000 trained Red Cross volunteers working everywhere from the urban capitals to remote outer islands. When Tropical Cyclone Harold hit Vanuatu, Fiji, Tonga and the Solomon Islands in April this year, more than 1,000 Red Cross volunteers were mobilized to support evacuation efforts and provide relief. Head of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies Cluster Coordination and Support Team in Suva, Kathryn Clarkson, said: "Some of the same communities have been hit by five big cyclones in as many years and Red Cross will be there to provide assistance, as they prepare for another cyclone. Working in partnership with governments, Red Cross societies across the Pacific will provide vital support and information to help communities affected by cyclones maintain access to basic social services, and reduce the economic, social and psychological impact." About IFRC IFRC is the world’s largest humanitarian network, comprising 192 National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies working to save lives and promote dignity around the world. www.ifrc.org-Facebook-Twitter-YouTube

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Humanitarian response to hurricanes Eta and Iota one of the most challenging faced by Central America in decades

Panama/Geneva, 14 December 2020– One month after hurricanes Eta and Iota hit Central America and Colombia, affecting more than 7.5 million people, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) warns that millions are still in need of immediate humanitarian support in what has become one of the most challenging disasters faced by the region in recent history. The IFRC and National Red Cross Societies are currently addressing the most urgent needs of over 100,000 people through seven simultaneous humanitarian operations in Colombia, Belize, Costa Rica, Panamá, Guatemala, Nicaragua and Honduras. The situation is especially severe in Nicaragua, Honduras, and Guatemala, where more than 6 million people have been affected by heavy rains, floods, and landslides. In-depth damage and needs assessments are ongoing but results from all rapid assessments conducted so far paint a bleak humanitarian picture in both the short and medium term. Felipe del Cid, Head of the IFRC’s Disaster Response Unit in the Americas, said: “Millions of people still need immediate humanitarian support: shelter, health care, psychosocial support, access to food, clean water, sanitation, and hygiene facilities. We are talking about a huge disaster, exacerbating an already ruinous combination of COVID-19, poverty and inequality in the region.These overlapping crises are making our operation one of the most complex we have ever mounted. The support of the international community is urgent to protect lives and livelihoods”. On 8 November, the IFRC launched an Emergency Appeal for 20 million Swiss Francs to assist 75,000 of the worst affected people in Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua for at least 18 months. Currently only 58% funded, the appeal focuses on rebuilding and repairing damaged shelters, improving access to clean water, sanitation and hygiene facilities, addressing health needs, including COVID-19 prevention measures, and providing psychosocial support. The operation will also seek to address the mid-term consequences, such as the hurricanes’ impact on livelihoods and displacement. “Eta and Iota have wiped out livestock, destroyedtools,harvests and farming areas, and impacted popular tourist spotsacross a region that was already facing an economic crisis related to COVID-19 and where the incomes of thousands of families had already been severely depleted. People are at risk of resorting to coping strategiessuch as selling their animals and properties,eating less food, andabandoning their homes to look for new ways of generating income”, added del Cid. History has shown that hurricanes can cause displacement influxes as the loss of housing and livelihoods fuel unemployment and lead to increased movement of people to urban centres. Eta and Iota also represent a challenge for returned populations. InGuatemala and Honduras,some of the areas hit hardest have also welcomed large groups of returned people whose journeys have not ended in the way they expected. Figures on unemployment, poverty, and vulnerability were already high due to COVID-19 and will very likely deteriorate due to Eta and Iota. Audiovisual materials including high quality B-roll and images available to download and use here.

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Succession of typhoons leave Filipino families with life-altering decisions

Rebuilding your home, reestablishing income source, or feeding families are all the basic right of people. But those in the Philippines, devastated by typhoons Goni and Vamco are now facing incredible life changing decisions. They have to now prioritize one basic need over the other as they start to rebuild their lives in the wake of back-to-back super typhoons. For Jesus and Jocelyn Onsay, rebuilding their damaged home and providing a roof for their five grandchildren is a priority. However, they can’t buy any materials to start the repairs because their crops, their only source of income, were destroyed by the storms. With their crops destroyed, even providing food for the family is a challenge, and the food relief currently available is not enough. Jesus Onsay blows air to start a fire and boil water. His grandchildren share a pack of instant noodles from the food relief for breakfast. “It’s really difficult. We can’t do anything but rebuild our house. We can’t go to work because we need to repair our house first so the children will have roof above their heads. It pains me to see them get wet by the rain,” Jesus said. Jocelyn checks their belongings covered by a tarpaulin that was provided by Red Cross after Typhoon Mina in 2007. Their home’s roof was completely ripped off by Typhoon Goni’s powerful winds. Typhoon Vamco compounded their suffering, dumping rains that drenched possessions and inundated their house. Ceferino, 67, and Celeste, 65, have tried to make their destroyed house habitable again using a tarpaulin provided by the Philippine Red Cross and nails and pieces of wood salvaged from the ruins of their home. Ceferino earns a living as a part time construction laborer but with his age, finding a job has proven not to be that easy. “Only few people hire me because of my age. I am trying my best to repair our house to make it livable without enough materials because I have no money,” Ceferino explained. Christopher has to make the difficult decision of cleaning and repairing his house first but that means losing his source of income. “That’s the problem, instead of attending to our livelihood, we have to fix our house first, so we have a shelter. Our income comes from harvesting copra (dried coconut kernel) and abaca. Our abaca is already rotting (up in the mountain). This is life. We have to accept it,” Christopher said. Abaca crops – an important source of income for many families, were destroyed by typhoons Goni and Vamco. The typhoons have also devastated fishing communities, like in Bato, Catanduanes. Food for his two children and wife is Alvin’s priority. He is at a loss on how to recover from all the devastation brought by the massive flooding to their home and farm. He was able to save the water buffaloes, but said he will need support to replant his crops and rebuild the farm. Typhoons Goni and Vamco have destroyed crops that are crucial for food supplies and income, including these corn fields in Amulung, Cagayan. Elma Navarro’s house was seriously damaged by the flood brought by typhoon Vamco. With the help of relatives, they managed to repair the house, but Elma has doubts if it could withstand another major disaster. As a single mum, Elma’s focus is now to look for work and an income that can help her rebuild a safer home while supporting her three children and 97-year-old mother. “This is the worst flood I have experienced since Typhoon Mangkhut in 2017. I wash clothes to earn money to support my family and without an additional source of income, I don’t think I will be able to rebuild our house,” Elma said. Nearly 1.3 million people are still suffering after consecutive storms destroyed their homes. The livelihoods of over 200,000 farmers and fishermen are affected. The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies has released 1.15 million Swiss francs from the Disaster Relief Emergency Fund to provide immediate and urgent needs of affected communities. More support is needed to help people get back on their feet. IFRC launched a revised Emergency Appeal for 10.8 million Swiss francs to support the Philippine Red Cross in its operations to assist families in rebuilding their homes and restarting their disrupted livelihoods.

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Red Cross launches massive, multi-country operation as horror of Hurricane Eta emerges

Panama/Geneva, 10 November 2020 – The national, regional, and global resources of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) are being mobilized as the full, destructive picture of Eta begins to emerge across Central America. According to Red Cross assessments, more than 2.5 million people from Panama to Belize have been affected in some way, although the impacts are most severe in Honduras, Nicaragua and Guatemala. Felipe del Cid, IFRC's Operations Manager for the Americas, said: "Eta has been a devastating disaster. In Honduras alone, 1.7 million people have been affected. Many of them are women, children and members of indigenous communities that have lost everything and have no access to water and food. In several communities, families are drinking contaminated water and are in urgent need of support." A plane and two trucks carrying a combined 98 tons of humanitarian aid are departing from the IFRC’s Humanitarian Logistics Hub in Panama to Nicaragua and Honduras. Aid items include mosquito nets, kitchen kits, hygiene kits, tarpaulins, jerrycans, cleaning kits, tool kits and COVID protection equipment. The IFRC has launched a 20 million Swiss franc Emergency Appeal to support and dramatically expand local Red Cross efforts in Honduras, Nicaragua and Guatemala. This operation aims to assist 75,000 of the worst affected people for at least 18 months. It will focus on rebuilding and repairing damaged shelters, improving access to clean water, hygiene and sanitation, addressing health care needs, including COVID-19 prevention needs, and providing psychosocial support. The operation will also seek to address issues related to gender and inclusion, as well as displacement. Historically, disasters in the region have led to increased movement of people towards urban centres. IFRC is also deploying a series of Emergency Response Units from its global network as part of the multi-country operation. "The region is facing a triple crisis: Eta, COVID-19 and the one caused by the pre-existing conditions of vulnerability that have been affecting Central American countries. We are talking about millions of people affected in seven countries. The need for humanitarian aid is dramatic," Felipe del Cid added. National Red Cross Societies across Central America were active before Eta made landfall. They coordinated with authorities to prepare for Eta’s impact and assisted in the evacuation of communities lying in its path. Since the storm made landfall, they have been involved in search and rescue efforts, offered support to people in shelters, provided prehospital care to the injured, and offered psychosocial support and COVID-19 prevention information to survivors. In addition to mounting this operation, IFRC is also closely monitoring potential new storm systems that could develop and threaten Eta-affected communities in the coming days.

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IFRC concerned about impact of Hurricane Eta on coronavirus transmission

The Red Cross, working in every country in the region, is supporting thousands of people affected by the heavy rains and floods caused by Hurricane Eta. Eta tore across parts of Central America after in made landfall in Nicaragua on 3 November as a category 4 Hurricane. Though it was downgraded to a tropical storm as it moved towards Honduras and Guatemala, constant rains and powerful winds have caused flooding and devastation across the region, including dozens of deadly landslides. Belize, Cost Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico and Nicaragua have all been significantly affected. Thousands of people have been evacuated from their homes with flooding and landslides causing severe damage across the region. It is thought the storm has claimed the lives of more than 200 people, though the true figure could be much higher as many people remain missing. As families struggle to come to terms with what has happened, concerns are mounting about the impact this disaster will have on coronavirus transmissions. COVID-19 prevention measures, such as regular hand washing and social distancing, will almost certainly be made more difficult in evacuation shelters, in overcrowded family homes or other safe places people have moved to. “There are thousands of homeless people, in temporary refuges or shelters facing many vulnerabilities. Right now, preventing the spread of COVID-19 is essential despite the enormous challenges of the emergency. It is not unlikely that we will witness a significant increase in cases in the coming weeks, due to the difficulty of applying public health measures in such a complex context,” Dr María Tallarico, IFRC Health Coordinator in the Americas, warns. Thousands of Red Cross volunteers across the region are assisting families affected by floods, supporting evacuations and search and rescue, providing first aid and psychosocial support, as well as transporting people safely to hospital. These same volunteers have been supporting communities to stay safe during the pandemic. “Red Cross National Societies face the difficult task of responding to these deadly rains and floods as well as COVID-19. Volunteers are being provided with the necessary personal protection equipment and will continue to support communities with prevention and protection measures. It is important now that these measures are not only maintained but increased in order to reduce possible transmissions”, Dr Maria continues. Volunteers from the Guatemalan Red Cross are supporting children affected by the storm with psychosocial support in evacuation shelters across the country. Across the region, volunteers are already distributing hygiene kits across to help people to stay safe. (Credit: Guatemalan Red Cross)[/caption] Red Cross National Societies, with the support of the IFRC in the region, are already distributing hygiene kits to displaced people, these include masks and hand sanitizer. Volunteers are also talking to families about how to stay safe during this time. The IFRC is recommending that all response must consider the need for heightened prevention measures against the virus, as well as other communicable diseases, such as Zika, that commonly increase during and after floods. “We urge people to ensure that they continue to follow health advice, wear masks and wash or disinfect their hands as regularly as possible, use safe water to avoid diarrhea and other infections due to contaminated water, protect girls and boys and monitor the emergence of respiratory or skin diseases. Our Red Cross staff and volunteers are on the ground helping and supporting these tasks,” Dr Maria says. The Red Cross is also urging people to continue to consider personal protection measures such as wearing masks and washing their hands as often as possible. Assessments are underway to evaluate the damage caused by the storm. The immediate concerns are ensuring people have access to clean water, food and safe shelter. It may be days or even week before the true extent of the damage is known, but constant rains even after the storm has passed, means that strong currents and landslides continue to destroy homes, farmland and sadly, to take lives. This devastation comes at a time when many communities in the region are already deeply affected by the health and economic impacts of the coronavirus pandemic. The long-term effects of this disaster threatens to push communities already struggling to cope, over the edge. “The long-term effects of this climate disaster will push communities already struggling to cope with the health and economic impacts of the coronavirus pandemic, over the edge. The IFRC has launched and appeal and will continue to work alongside the National Societies responding, to ensure that no one is left behind.” The IFRC has launched a regional emergency appeal to cover three countries, Honduras, Guatemala and Nicaragua. The IFRC is seeking 20m CHF to support 75,000 people cross these three countries for the next 18 months. It also continues to support other countries affected, including Belize, Costa Rica, and Panama, working closely with the National Societies responding. The IFRC in the region continues to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic.

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Central America: Hurricane Eta “one of the biggest threats since Hurricane Mitch”

Panama/Geneva, 6 November 2020 — The Red Cross is supporting thousands of people affected by the heavy rains and floods caused by now-Tropical Storm Eta. The devastating storm has claimed more than 50 lives, forced the evacuation of thousands of people, and caused significant damage to infrastructure and homes throughout Central America. The situation is especially critical in Honduras where authorities have issued a red alert for the entire country, as well as in Nicaragua and Guatemala. Felipe del Cid is the Head of Operations in the Americas for the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC). He said: “In Honduras, already about 400,000 people have been directly affected by the storm, but that number could even double in the coming hours. Our teams on the ground are seeing widespread damage: communities are flooded, homes are destroyed, and people have been forced to leave their homes. “Red Cross teams will continue surveying damage, completing needs assessments, and providing comfort and emergency support to those in need. This is probably one of the biggest threats the country has faced since the passage of Hurricane Mitch in 1998.” The Red Cross is working in close coordination with national and local authorities in all affected countries. Red Cross volunteers and staff are supporting evacuation efforts, rescuing people trapped by the floods and monitoring rivers as water levels rise. They are also providing emergency first aid and psychosocial support. The IFRC has already released about 440,000 Swiss francs from its Disaster Relief Emergency Fund (DREF) to bolster efforts in Nicaragua. Additional allocations for other affected countries are in the pipeline. The IFRC’s logistics unit at the Humanitarian Hub in Panama is preparing to dispatch emergency supplies such as tarps, blankets, and other items to areas of greatest need. IFRC also anticipates launching emergency appeals for Honduras and Nicaragua.

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Red Cross bracing for Hurricane Eta’s winds, flooding, and storm surge

Panama/Geneva,3November 2020 —Red Cross volunteers and staff in Nicaragua and Honduras have been preparing to deliver life-saving humanitarian assistance ahead of Hurricane Eta’s imminent landfall. The Honduran and Nicaraguan Red Cross have placed trained volunteers on high alert and have pre-positioned emergency supplies, including fuel, tarpaulins and other relief items. In both countries, the Red Cross has been urging people to have food, water, and other necessities available, and to consider personal protection measures, such as masks and hand sanitizer, for emergency go bags. Oscar Gutiérrez Somarriba, President of the Nicaraguan Red Cross’ National Council said: “We are monitoring the hurricane as it moves towards the coast Nicaragua and working with our teams in the areas on the storm’s predicted path to determine the best course of action in response to the conditions and to continue to support vulnerable communities.” Carlos Montes, Programme Director of the Honduran Red Cross said: “The Red Cross is working with communities to ensure they are ready to face hurricane conditions during this COVID-19 pandemic by sharing information about how to be ready for a disaster, along with the latest information about the storm.” Hurricane Eta is the 28thnamed storm of the 2020 Atlantic hurricane season, tying the record for the most named storms, previously set in 2005. In addition to supporting communities threatened or affected by disasters like Eta, IFRC advocates for measures designed to mitigate the humanitarian impact of these catastrophic events. Effective preparedness and early action saves lives and livelihoods.

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Hurricane Dorian anniversary: Thousands supported during a global pandemic and in the midst of hurricane

One year after Hurricane Dorian devastated communities in the Bahamas, the Red Cross has assisted thousands of families with emergency relief, financial assistance and support for long-term recovery. Hurricane Dorian made landfall in the Bahamas on 1 September 2019 as a destructive category 5 storm. It caused extensive flooding and damage across the Abaco Islands and Grand Bahama. Rundell Fowler is a resident of Grand Bahama. Her roof was ripped off during the hurricane. Through the Red Cross Home Repair program, she received financial assistance, which allowed her to pay for repairs and strengthen her home in case of future storms. “It was a great help and we’re in hurricane season again, so I am very grateful,” she said After Hurricane Dorian, Joel Hepburn said, his home was so destroyed that he wasn’t sure he would be able to stay on Abaco Island, a place he had lived his whole life. But with financial support from the Red Cross he has been able to buy the materials he needs to fix up his house and stay. Volunteers and staff with the Bahamas Red Cross have supported communities since before the storm. They worked in shelters, delivered emergency aid including more than $11 million USD in emergency financial assistance to more than 3,000 families, supported recovery rental assistance and housing repair programs, and help families prepare for the current hurricane season, which has already pushed 14 storms through the Caribbean. “As we continue to help people in the Bahamas recover and rebuild after Hurricane Dorian, we are doing so while keeping the next hurricane in mind. If communities build back stronger and more resilient it can reduce the impact of extreme weather events,” said Baylar Talibov, Hurricane Dorian Operations Manager for the International Federation of Red Cross and Crescent. This important work continues while operating within the tremendously complex situation created by COVID-19, that limited the movement of volunteers and in-person access to communities on affected islands. The COVID-19 pandemic directly impacted vulnerable families recovering from Hurricane Dorian. Throughout this difficult time, the Red Cross continues to support people in their recovery process while helping those impacted by COVID-19. Bahamas Red Cross and partners continue to support ongoing recovery interventions including rental assistance, home repair assistance, small business grants, psychosocial support, and community engagement. “We know the road to recovery is long, and the Red Cross is here for the journey. We were in communities to support vulnerable people before, and we are there now and into the future. It is very important to recognize the dedication of Red Cross staff and volunteers in the Bahamas as they continue to support others in these difficult times,” said Ariel Kestens, IFRC Head of Country Cluster for the English- and Dutch-Speaking Caribbean.

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| Press release

Hurricane Dorian anniversary: Thousands supported during a global pandemic and in the midst of hurricane season

Panama/Geneva, 1 September 2020 — One year after Hurricane Dorian devastated communities in the Bahamas, the Red Cross has assisted thousands of families with emergency relief, financial assistance and support for long-term recovery. This important work continues while operating within the tremendously complex situation created by COVID-19, that limited the movement of volunteers and in-person access to communities on affected islands. Hurricane Dorian made landfall in the Bahamas on 1 September 2019 as a destructive category 5 storm. It caused extensive flooding and damage across the Abaco Islands and Grand Bahama. Volunteers and staff with the Bahamas Red Cross have supported communities since before the storm. They worked in shelters, delivered aid including more than $ US 11 million in emergency financial assistance to more than 3,000 families, supported recovery rental assistance and housing repair programmes, and helping families prepare for the current hurricane season, which has already pushed 14 storms through the Caribbean. Rundell Fowler is a resident of Grand Bahama. Her roof was ripped off during the hurricane. Through the Red Cross Home Repair programme, she received financial assistance, which allowed her to pay for repairs and strengthen her home in case of future storms. She said: “It was a great help and we’re in hurricane season again, so I am very grateful.” The Red Cross is working with communities to ensure they are ready to address tropical storms and hurricane conditions during COVID-19. Bahamas Red Cross is working with the National Emergency Management Agency supporting plans for preparedness and response, including the opening of shelters. The Bahamas Red Cross shares information about how-to be ready for disasters and how to be prepared during the pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic directly impacted vulnerable families recovering from Hurricane Dorian. Throughout this difficult time, the Red Cross continues to support people in their recovery process while helping those impacted by COVID-19. Bahamas Red Cross and partners continue to support ongoing recovery interventions including rental assistance, home repair assistance, small business grants, psychosocial support, and community engagement. Ariel Kestens International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies’ Head of Country Cluster for the English and Dutch Speaking Caribbean, said: “We know the road to recovery is long, and the Red Cross is here for the journey. We were in communities to support vulnerable people before and we are there now and into the future. It is very important to recognize the dedication of Red Cross staff and volunteers in the Bahamas as they continue to support others in these difficult times.”

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| Press release

Red Cross in Bahamas preparing for Hurricane Isaias, while balancing COVID-19 response and Hurricane Dorian recovery

Panama/Port of Spain, 31 July 2020 — The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) is working alongside the Bahamas Red Cross to prepare for Hurricane Isaias. A hurricane warning is in effect in the Bahamas with storm surge, hurricane-force winds, and heavy rainfall expected on the south eastern islands today and continuing through the weekend. Effective preparedness and early action in disaster saves lives and livelihoods. The Red Cross is working with communities to ensure they are ready to address possible hurricane conditions during the time of the COVID-19 pandemic. Bahamas Red Cross is working closely with the National Emergency Management Agency supporting plans for preparedness and response, including the opening of shelters. The Bahamas Red Cross is sharing information about how-to be ready for disaster, and the latest information about the storm. Red Cross volunteers have been trained in using personal protection equipment and are ready to mobilize in response to Hurricane Isaias. “The team in the Bahamas is managing three difficult emergencies simultaneously: they are preparing for Hurricane Isaias, addressing and supporting people impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, and continuing to help in recovery from Hurricane Dorian,” said Ariel Kestens IFRC Head of Country Cluster for the English and Dutch Speaking Caribbean. “The Red Cross is continuing our work, as well as monitoring the situation to determine our ongoing course of action and how to continue to best meet the needs of vulnerable communities during these difficult times.” To mitigate the impacts of a hurricane and associated flooding, the Red Cross has pre-positioned humanitarian relief supplies in key areas throughout the region. Across the Caribbean, Red Cross volunteers are sharing early warning and preparedness messages, and they are urging people to have food, water, and other necessities available, and to consider personal protection measures, such as masks and hand sanitizer for emergency go bags. Latin America and the Caribbean are disaster-prone regions. The IFRC advocates for climate change adaptation measures to mitigate the humanitarian impact of these disasters.

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| Press release

Cyclone Amphan: Thousands in need of humanitarian assistance in Bangladesh

Kuala Lumpur, Dhaka, 02 Jun 2020 – Almost two weeks after cyclone Amphan barreled through Bangladesh, Red Crescent teams have already reached more than 30,000 people, but thousands more are in need of further humanitarian assistance. Cyclone Amphan made landfall in the coasts of West Bengal, India on 20 May 2020, and then entered Bangladesh with wind speeds of up to 150 kmph, heavy rain and tidal surges that caused huge devastation in 26 districts across the country. Bangladesh Red Crescent Society Secretary General Md. Feroz Salah Uddin said: “Thousands of people now need humanitarian support as they are living in temporary shelters with limited access to food, safe water and toilets after the cyclone has passed. Their livelihoods are also greatly affected and many of them do not know how to get back on their feet.” More than 350,000 houses have been damaged or destroyed, alongside more than 176,000 hectares of farmland including standing crops, vegetable and fruit, thousands of trees have been uprooted and fish farms worth approximately 37 million US dollars have been damaged. Tidal surges caused the collapse of embankments, inundations of salt water causing a scarcity of safe drinking water and putting the lives of thousands at risk of waterborne diseases. More than 70,000 Bangladesh Red Crescent volunteers, including 55,000 Cyclone Preparedness Programme volunteers, have been on the ground since before the cyclone hit, supporting evacuation efforts and distributing relief items. Now that the extent of the urgent humanitarian needs is becoming clearer, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) and Bangladesh Red Crescent Society (BDRCS) have launched an emergency appeal of 5 million Swiss francs (5.1 million US dollars) to provide emergency assistance to 50,000 people in Bangladesh severely affected by the cyclone. IFRC Head of Bangladesh Country Office Azmat Ulla said: “Our early actions have saved many lives before the cyclone and now we are speeding up our response efforts so that these people can have access to basic needs and stay healthy. “With this emergency appeal our aim is not only to provide emergency relief but also to improve the physical, social, environmental and economic conditions to create a more resilient community in an effective and efficient way.” The funding will support Bangladesh Red Crescent in providing food, safe drinking water, shelter and hygiene items, and cash grants, as well as renovating damaged health clinics to benefit some of the most vulnerable people, including thos living in temporary or makeshift shelters. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is also making the emergency situation more complex as people who have been displaced by the cyclone have limited access to handwashing and other hygiene facilities, increasing the risk of spreading the virus further. Mr Ulla said: “The challenge is to help the affected population with emergency relief while we also take necessary steps to halt the spread of COVID-19.” As part of their response activities, Bangladesh Red Crescent teams will be taking preventive measures to help contain the spread of COVID-19 including distributing hygiene information and advice, wearing personal protective equipment, and providing appropriate hygiene materials such as masks and hand sanitiser to people in shelters. The IFRC cyclone Amphan emergency appeal will support Bangladesh Red Crescent response for the next 12 months.

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